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收听收看全国两会开幕会 常州各界干部群众深受鼓舞

2019-10-14 23:11 来源:西安网

  收听收看全国两会开幕会 常州各界干部群众深受鼓舞

  Chinawillspeedupthedraftingandimplementationofrulesandregulationsoncarbonemissionstrading,aseniorofficialsaidonWednesdayafterthecountrycelebrateditssixthLowCarbonDay,anannualeventonJ,LiGao,directorofclimatechangeattheMinistryofEcologyandEnvironment,saiddocumentsalreadypublishedw,thetaskoftacklingclimatechangehasbeentransferredtotheministryfromtheNationalDevelopmentandReformCommission,thetopeconomicplanner.“Carbonemissionstradingwillbelaunchednationwide,firstinthepowergenerationsectorandgraduallyextendedtootherindustries,”nindustryinDecember,markingthestartoftheconstructionofanationalcarbonemissionstradingsystem,,enterprisesareassignedemissionsquotas,andthoseprterprisesbebetterpreparedforthecomingcarbonemissionstradingplatform,venregions,includingBeijing,,pilotprogramsintheseregionscoveredalmost3,000entitiesfrommorethan20industrialsectors,accordingtoa2017reportpublishedbytheNDRC’,andhisdepartmentwilldiscusswiththesevenpilotregion,Chinawillhavetoreduc,China’sspecialrepresentativeonclimatechange,saidataMarch,ChinahadcutcarbondioxideemissionsperunitofGDPby46percentfrom2005levels,XiewasquotedbyXinhuaNewsAgencyassaying.ThelogoforDouyin,picturedonMay25,2018.[Photo/VCG]Chinasshort-videoplatformDouyinreleaseditsuservolumeforthefirsttimeonTuesday,withmorethaasdifferentfromthreemonthsago,whenareportissuedbytheinternetconsultancyAnalysysshowedthatDouyinsarchrivalKuaishouheldasafeleaduptoFebruarywith108milliondailyactiveusers,evenmorethanthecombinedvolumeoftheotherthreevideoapps—Douyin,sofficialWeChataccount,theplatformhasincreasedby80milliondailyactiveusersinthespanofthreemonths,sdailyuserpoolwentthroughasignificantexpansionfromlessthan40milliontonearly70millionduringtheSpringFestivalholiday,,seniordirectorwithDouyin,sayingthatduringSpringFestivalthemobilityofexistingusers,mainlyspreadamongfirstorsecond-tiercities,,Douyinhassinceexpandeditsreachtovariousothercategories,suchasgourmetfood,exercise,travelandculture,,morethan40percentoftheusersonDouyinareaged24-30,compared,Douyinhasalsoattractedmorethan500governmentbodiesandmediaorganizationstoopenanaccountonitsplatform,includingtheState-ownedAssetsS,,withAllWeatherTMTquotingdatafromtheshort-videoapplicationownedbyBeijingByteDanceTechnology,,founderandCEOofBytedance,saidinMar,anoverseasiterationofDouyin,,avideosocialnetworkpurchasedbyToutiaoinNovember,haveprovidedservicesinmorethan150countriesandregions,enjoyingthefastestgrowthintheworldamongmobileapps.

ChengandhisteamperformduringtheweeklongStraitsForuminXiamen,receivedfromteachersinthestudentaffairsoffice."Ishoutedatthem:WhydoyoutreatmelikethisIalsogetbulliedbyothers,"edhimtightly,askinghim:"tyoufeelourloveandtolerance""Herwordswereaturningpointinmylife,whichmademedeterminedtochangemyself,"hesaid."Later,,IfeltasifIhadtwolegsthatcouldmovefreelyandfast."Chengstartedlearningwheelchairdanceandwheelchairsports,includingbasketballandbadminton."AtfirstIwasunwillingtopracticedancingbecauseIthoughtitagirlishthing,"hesaid.""Throughdancing,Chengfoundhisconfidenceandself-esteem."Onceanoldwomanintheaudiencetoldmethatmyperformancecouldtouchalotpeople,"hesaid."Igraduallyrealizedthatwheelchairdanceisnotjustaperformance,butawaytoinspireothers."Chenglaterimprovedonthetraditionalformofwheelchairdancing,whichwaspassive,andaddedmoredancingstyles,suchaship-hop,andgesturestohisperformance.SeniorcitizenschatataretirementhomeinBeijing.[Photo/Xinhua]AdjustmentfundwillhelpequalizeprovincesabilitiestopayretireesThecentralgovernmentisadoptinganadjustmentfundsystemforthebasicpensioncoveringemployeesofenterprisestoaddressthedifferentsituationsamongpro,ChinasCabinet,saidonWednesdaythatthesystem,whichwillbeputinplaceonJuly1,willbebasedonthecurrentpensionsyssionfundpoolsandredistributeitlater,basedon90percentoftheanplanthatwillbuildasustainablebasicpensionsystem,,PremierLiKeqiangsaidinawritteninstructionthatcoordinatedeffortsshouldbemadetoensuretheraising,allocation,,($523billion),,,,butprovincialregionssawincreasingdisparityintheirinsurancefundsduetothedifferencesintheireconomicgrowthandratiosofworkerstoretirees,YouJun,vice-ministerofhumanresourcesandsocialsecurity,saidatapo,suchasBeijingandGuangdongprovince,butotherplaces,suchasLiaoningandHeilongjiangprovinces,havepensionfunddeficits,,anationaladjustmentwascalledfor,ndsmorethantheysubmittedtothecentralgovernment,soverallabilityforriskmanagementinpensions,,ensuringpunctualpaymentinfulltoretirees,,aprofessorofsocialsecurityatRenminUniversityofChina,saidthenewsystemwillhelpremoveinequitiesbyunifyingpensioninsurancearoundthecountry."Workersandenterpriseswillpayatthesameratioandsystematicunificationwillleadtoanequality,whichisthefirstandvitalsteptobuildanationallycoordinatedpensionsystem,"Zhengsaid.

  Phototakenin1958shows5-year-oldXiJinping(L),hisyoungerbrotherandtheirfatherXiZhongxun.[Photo/]FatherinculcatedfrugalhabitsXiZhongxun,fatherofXiJinping,servedaschairmanoftheShaanxi-GansuBorderRegion,aCPCrevolutionarybaseofthe1930s,andwascalledbyChairmanMaoZedonga"leaderofthepeople."XiZhongxunlaterledGuangdonginitsimplementationofreformandopening-uppoliciesandintheconstructionofspecialeconomiczonesintheprovince."Dadleadsafrugallife,n,"Xisaidinalettertohisfatherin2001,whenhewasthegovernorofFujianprovinceandwasunabletoattendhisfathers88thbirthdaycelebrationduetoworkcommitments.Chinese100yuanbanknotesareseeninacountingmachinewhileaclerkcountsthematabankinBeijing,March30,2016.[Photo/Agencies]Aftermorethan10yearsofwildexpansion,willChinascredit,($)byFebruaryintermsoftotalsocialfinancing,betamedbyanewlyformedregulatoryframeworkfortheassetmanagementsegmentAbout8millionfinancialpractitionersintheChineseassetmanagementsegmentmaystartthinkingabouttheirfuturejobs,ortaketheearliestopportunitytochangecareers,beforewhattheyseeastheregulatoryhurricane,whoisworkingwithalargesecuritiescompanyandleadsitsassetmanagementteam,saidthatthoseworkinginthesectorworrytheymightlosejobswhenthenewrulestakeeffect."Themostprofitablebutriskybusinesseswillbestoppedwhentheregulatorssetleverageceilingsonassetmanagementproducts,",thetotalassetsofanopen-endedpublicofferingproductshouldnotexceed140percentoftheproductsnetassets,whilethetotalassetsofaclosed-endpubl,especiallypeoplewho,theyareafraidthatthe"safe"produc,stocksorelsewhere,searchingforhigherreturnsifthesafeinvestmentcannotbeguaranteedanymore,,couldthissetoftightenedregulationsbecomeacagetocontrolfinancialrisksorevolveintoanearthquakeshakingtheveryfoundationoftheChinesefinancialsystemInthewakeofthe2008globalfinancialcrisis,chaswealthmanagementandtrustproducts,,thisalsobooste,10yearsaftertheGFC,thecountrystopfinancialregulatorsaresettoreinintheside-effectsofthefinancialstimulus,championingthecauseofdeleveraging,"newera",rapidcreditgrowthwasmainlydrivenscommercialbanks,whichdominatethedomesticfinancialsector,mayseektocreatemorecomplexandnon-transparentinstruments,orinformalfinancingchannels,,whetheractivity-basedorentity-based,couldbeexpectedsoon,,however,isanart,notafinancialtechnique,ontrol,someindustryobserversfear.

  Phototakenin1958shows5-year-oldXiJinping(L),hisyoungerbrotherandtheirfatherXiZhongxun.[Photo/]FatherinculcatedfrugalhabitsXiZhongxun,fatherofXiJinping,servedaschairmanoftheShaanxi-GansuBorderRegion,aCPCrevolutionarybaseofthe1930s,andwascalledbyChairmanMaoZedonga"leaderofthepeople."XiZhongxunlaterledGuangdonginitsimplementationofreformandopening-uppoliciesandintheconstructionofspecialeconomiczonesintheprovince."Dadleadsafrugallife,n,"Xisaidinalettertohisfatherin2001,whenhewasthegovernorofFujianprovinceandwasunabletoattendhisfathers88thbirthdaycelebrationduetoworkcommitments.Thisvasegatheringdustinaloftturnedouttobeahugely-importantChinesevasewhichhassoldafteratenseauctionroombattle.[Photo/VCG]UnsuspectingownersbroughtthetreasureinashoeboxforvaluationAlong-forgottenandrareChineseim($19million)atSothebyhevase-decoratedwithdeerandcranes-at500,ssaidthevaseisofexceptionalrarityandtheonlyknownexampleofitskind,bearingamarkfromthereignoftheQianlongEmperor(1736-95).The18thcenturyporcelainvasewasfoundbychanceamongdozensofotherpiecesofChinoiseriesinanatticbyitsunsuspectingowners,,SothebysAsianartsexpert,openedtheboxtoexaminethevase,hewasimmediatelystruckbyitsquality."Thisisamajorworkofart,itisasifwehadjustdiscoveredaCaravaggio,"uncleandappearsa,"tookthetrain,thenthemetroandwalkedonfootthroughthedoorsofSothebysandintomyofficewiththevaseinashoeboxprotectedbynewspaper".Headded:"Whensheputtheboxonmydeskandweopeneditwewereallstunnedbythebeautyofthepiece."However,theexactprovenanceoftheitembefore1947cannotbetraced.

Phototakenin1958shows5-year-oldXiJinping(L),hisyoungerbrotherandtheirfatherXiZhongxun.[Photo/]FatherinculcatedfrugalhabitsXiZhongxun,fatherofXiJinping,servedaschairmanoftheShaanxi-GansuBorderRegion,aCPCrevolutionarybaseofthe1930s,andwascalledbyChairmanMaoZedonga"leaderofthepeople."XiZhongxunlaterledGuangdonginitsimplementationofreformandopening-uppoliciesandintheconstructionofspecialeconomiczonesintheprovince."Dadleadsafrugallife,n,"Xisaidinalettertohisfatherin2001,whenhewasthegovernorofFujianprovinceandwasunabletoattendhisfathers88thbirthdaycelebrationduetoworkcommitments.

  AteacherinstructsstudentshowtosortgarbageataschoolinXiangyang,Hubeiprovince.[Photo/VCG]BEIJING--Sai,butafterSaizisparentsretired,,,thismeanstakingjustenoughforonesneedsandavoidingextravagance,sortingtheinevitabletrash,sfatheralwaysjokesabouthiswifebeingtoocheapwhenaskedwhytheydecidedtolivea"nowaste"life."Myparentslivedthroughalongperiodofmaterialscarcity,andtheylearnedtotreasureeverythingandhatewaste,",hermotherwould,afterrecyclingthetubes,thetoothpasteokebeyondrepair,,Saizididsomemodificationsandaddedalacebordertomakeanoriginal,,nutshells,,enzymecleansers,,andusetheexcrement,firewoodashesandkitchenresiduecompostintheirhomegarden,wherenaturesmagiccreatesanendlesscycle."Thereisnosuchthingaswaste,onlyresourceswehaventfoundouthowtouseyet,",,orasmanyaffectionatelycallher,"OldTang,","GoZeroWaste"labinlate2016,whenshebegantocutplasticuseandreducetrashinanefforttocontributetothebattleagainstplasticpollution.

  Chinawilltakeaslewofincentivestofurtherboostimportsinordertodrivedomesticindustrialupgradingandbettermeettheincreasinglydiversifiedconsumptiondemandsofpeople,theStateCoun,PresidentXiJinpingannouncedthatChinawillexpandimportsandachievegreaterbalanceininternationalpaymentsunderthecurrentaccount,awillactivelyexpandimportsandlowerimporttariffsongoodssuchasautomobilesandeverydayconsumerproducts,topromoteindustrialupgradingandmerofgoodsfornineconsecutiveyears,tradeinservices,lyconsumergoods,medicine,aswellasnursingandrehabilitationfacilities,tionalproceduresandunreasonablepriceincreases,,andimportsofproducerservicescoveringresearchanddesign,tradelogistics,consultingservices,,wiromotingtheAuthorizedEconomicOperator(AEO),,acreditinformationsysteminforeigntradeaswellasenhancedintellectualpropertyrightsprotectionareneedewroundofhigh-standardopening-up,toeconomicrestructuring,andtoeconomictransformationandhigh-qualitydevelopment,,,ASpaceXFalcon9rocketcarryingNASAsGRACEFollow-OnEarth-observationsatellitesandfiveIridiumNextcommunicationssatellitesstandsatopSpaceLaunchComplex4EatVandenbergAirForceBaseinCaliforniaonMay21,2018.[Photo/NASA]Imnotaspaceperson,,ifyouweretoaskmewhatsthedifferencebetweenageostationarysatelliteandageosynchronoussatellite,andwhichofthetwomightyieldhigherreturnsoninvestment,Imighteitherignoreyoulikeap,spacetravel,whichforyearshasbeenaprivilegeextendedtoonlyafewsuperfitpilots,isexpec,asabusinessjournalistwhosebeatsareaviationandaerospace,Icantignorespaceanymore,givenprivatefirms,"spaceeconomy"sandspaceunicorns(thatis,startupsspecializinginspacethatarevaluedat$1billionormore).Forexample,GoogleInca,privateinvestorsinvested$,accordingtoareportfrominvestmentfirmSpaceAngels,andarecordnumberof120venturecapitalfirmsmadeinvestmentsinspaceventureslastyear,,ifyouarewillingtopartwith$250,000orupto$800,000withoutbattinganeyelid,,Bark()oftheUnitedKingdom,willhelparrangespacefl,however,untilthefirstspacehotel,AuroraStation,,,,,thelattersnumberisexpectedtorisesteadily,,,theywillwitness16sunrisesandsunsetsonaverageeveryday!Spacetravelandspace-relatedinvestmentscouldwellbewhattheinterneteconomyandartificialintelligencearetoday-theappleoftheinvestorseye,apotentialgoldmine,,costsaredown,soentrybarriersarelower,too,encouragingmoreandmorecussatelliteforthatperfectoverview.

  AmanstandsatEmersonsnewMeasurementTechnologyCenterinBeijing,whichopenedlastNovembertoserveitsautomationsolutionsbusinessinChinaandacrossAsia.[Photo/ChinaNewsService]EditorsNote:Thisyearmarksthe40thanniversaryofChinaaniesfortheirviewsonthecountrystothegrowthofChinasenergyindustryPleaseusethreewordstodescribeChina,formandopening-uppolicy40yearsagoThe40yearsofreformandopening-uphavemadeChinamoremodern,moreinternationalizedandmoredeveloped,ssecond-largesteconomyanditsimageasoneoftheworldaandfortheChinesepeople,qualitydevelopment,fromatraditionallow-costlabormanufacturingcountrytoamoreinnovation-based,talent-oriented,sthebiggestchallengeChinafacestodayandhowcanthecountryovercomeitNowthatChinahasenteredaphaseofslowergrowth,oneofthemainchallengeswillbetomaintainitssuccessfultransitiontoaconsumer-oriented,,includingthe13thFive-YearPlan(2016-20),,thegovernmentsdevelopmentstrategytoincreaseregionaltradeandencouragebroaderglobaleconomiccooperation,iscreatingenormousbusinessopportunitiesthroughoutAsia,nologyinnovation,infrastructure,education,finance,senvironmentalanddevelopmentchallenges,Emersonisworkingwithindustryandgovernmentagenciestopromotetheefficientuseofenergy,includingimprovedenergyefficiencystandards,developingtechnologiesandsolutionstoboostcleanerenergyproduction,late1970s,Emersonwasoneofsixglobalcompaniesinvited,Emersonwastheonlycompanythatwaswillingtoenteralicensingdealtosupplytec,wearecommittedt,000employfter40yearsofreformandopening-up,Chineseenterpriseshaveundergonetransformationsintermsofsize,structure,ness,,wecompletedastrategicportfoliorealignmentprogram,whichenablesustofocusonourtwocorebusinesses-automationsolutions,andcommercialandresidentialsolutions-tobuildonourstrengthsandleadership,tinuousresearchanddevelopmentandinnovation,andasroleintheworldtodayOverthepast40years,Chinahastransformedfromanundevelopednationtoar,ChinasnatssustainedeconomicgrowthhastranslatedintoincreasingvisibilityontheworldstageandPrsdevelopmentoverthisperiodhasnotonlymadeitapowerfulengineofworldeconomicgrowth,butalsocontributedtotherecover,Chinaactivelypromotesthelinkingofdevelopmentstrategiesofallnationsacrosstheregionandbeyond,anditishelpingtoboostlocalemploymentande,itisalsoimportanttoenforceintellectualpropertyrightsande,intellectualpropertyrightsp,wearealsointerestedinChinasreformanddevelopmentactivitiesinkeyareassuchasconservationofenergy,reductionofcarbonemissions,improvementofairquality,sustainablefoodwastemanagement,sexperiencesandpracticesbeusedtosolveglobalproblemsThegovernments13thFive-YearPlanlaysdownthestrategyandpathwayforChina,urbanizationandsocialwelfare,environmentalprotectionandtalentdevelo,Chinahassetitsownambitiousdevelopmentgoals,governmentistakingconcertedactionstsnewgreenp,wefeelthatifanenterprisecanwininChina,,Chinaisoneofourmostimportantmarketsandmanyofourkeyproductsare,,,withitsnewterminal,,Ihavewitnessedthespeedofthenationstransformation,,whatprogressinotherfieldshaveyouwitnessedinChinainthepast40yearsOneexamplethathasbeenextremelyimpressiveisChina,dams,,thelengthofChinashighwaysandhigh-speedrailmileagearerankedNo1intheworldandthenationalhigh-speedrailway,whichdidnotexist10yearsago,isnowmoreextensivethantheEuropeanUnionstransportationisindeedthespeedofChina!

  Staffofa5Gtechnologycompanydemonstratelong-distanceassistedautonomousvehicledrivingtovisitorsattheBigDataExpoinGuiyang,Guizhouprovince,onMay26.[Photo/Xinhua]TheUniversityofBristolislookingforChinesepartnerstosetupjointprogramsforthefifth-generationofwirelessnetworkt,deanoftheFacultyofEngineeringattheuniversity,saidChinaisnowatthepinnacleinmanyareasof5G,activelyinvolvinginthe3rdGenerationPartnershipProjectprocess,todrivethe5Gresearchanddevelopment."WewouldliketorepeatsomeofourexperimentsfromBristolhereinChina,seekingtofindapartnercity,"Nixsaid."oredeveloped,moreappropriate,moreefficientservicesforthefuture."Accordingtohim,theuniversitywilllookateducationalandresearchcollaborations,nthenearfuture,asthesuperfastbroadbandinternetaccesstechn,higherreliabilityandlowerlatency(thatis,thegapbetweentransmissionandreception)canberealized,,hreeyears,andwideapplicationof5Gisconceivableinthenextfiveto10years."Themostimportantapplicationscenariosof5Gincludetransportationandhealthcare,"hesaid.",theacademicsneedtofullyopenupandbuildupthetrust."HughBrady,vice-chancellorandpresidentoftheUniversityofBristol,said,"AccordingtotheUNslatestreport,,withmanyofthoseinChina,andonlythroughstrongresearchcollaborationcanwemaketheurgentbreakthroughsweneed."Overthepastfiveyears,China,increasinglycrowdedenvironmentsandscarceresources."Effectivewirelesscommunicationswillbeessentialtodeliverthebestservicesforsocietyandbusinessinemergingsmartcities,"saidYiZhiling,chiefscionscompaniesincludingChinaMobileCommunicationsCorpandHuaweiTechnologiesCoLtdtojointlydevelopscalablesolu,theuniversityisdrivingreal-worldresearch-includingthecityofBristol-wide5Gtestbed-leadingtomajoradvancesans2018GlobalMobileAwards,Nixsaid.ZhangjiajieGrandCanyonGlassBridge.[Photo/ChinaNewsService](ECNS)-ZhangjiajieGrandCanyonGlassBridge,designedbyChinaRailwayMajorBridgeReconnaissanceDesignInstitute(BRDI),haswontheArthurGHaydenMedalinthe35thInternationalBridgeConference(IBC),thepre-eminentarenafortheworld,withsevenawardsinhonorofdistinguishedengineerswhohavengineeringdemonstratinginnovationinspecialusebridgessuchaspedestrian,people-mover,ornon-traditionalstructures,sHunanprovince,,,alsoresponsibleforthebridgesmaintenance,successfullysolvedthetechnicalchallengesincablesystemdesign,glassbridgesurfacestress,windresistance,human-inducedvibration,,BRDIschiefdesignerforthebridge,saidthebridgeusheredintheeraofcustomized,multifunctionalsuspensionstructuresinChina,XuGongyi,deputychiefengineerofBRDI,,erforover50bigbridgesinChina,winninganumberofdomesticandinternationalawards.

  XieZhenhua(center),China’sspecialrepresentativeonclimatechangeaffairs,andToddStern(left),chiefclimatenegotiatorfortheObamaadministration,speakataglobalclimatechangeforumchairedbyQiYe(right),directoroftheBrookings-TsinghuaCenter,inBeijingonMay23.[PhotoprovidedbyTsinghuaUniversity]ItwasaftermonthsofnegotiationsfouryearsagoonhowthetwomajoreconomicpowerscouldcurbglobalcarbonemissionsthatXieandSternfinallyagreedthatChinawouldcommittopeakingitscarbonemissionsandincreasingnon-fossilenergyto20percentofitsenergymix"around",ChinesePresidentXiJinpingandhisthenUScounterpateforacountryschangeinitsenergy-consumptionmodel,"by"or"around",XiewastryingtobuytimeforChina,becausehewasnotconfidentthecount,itappearsthatXieunderestimatedChina’scapabilityt,nearlyfouryearsafterthebargainingfor“around"or"by”,XieboldlystatedinfrontofhisoldsparringpartneritwasprobablethatChinawouldpeakcarbonemissionsby2030.“e,”saidXie.“Inowthinkitispossiblethatwepeakby2030.“W"Thatindicateluteamountofemissionreductions,”Xiesaid.

  Prospectivecustomers(right)inquireaboutMobisummersproductsatthecompanysboothatGlobalInternetMobileConference2018inBeijinginApril.[PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily]MobisummersworldwidefootprinthelpsonlinecompaniestogrowGuangzhou,Guangdongprovince-basedMobisummer,amobilemarketingcompany,isfastemergingasapowerfulaidetoChineseinternet-basedcompanies,softwaredevelopers,,thescienceandtechnologyofplacingtargetedadvertisementsonmobilephonecontent(websitesandapps)killing,mobilemarketinghasemergedasapowerful,lucrativetoolasmostnetizensareonlineviatheirhandhelddeviceslikesmartphones,,onlinesellersofmanufacturedproducts,services,commoditiesandevencontentlikenews,information,moneyforMobisummer,chesakindofmatchmaker-e-providersata-meaning,ith,anytechnologythatcantempttheuserintoleavingthecurr,Chinasinternet-basedindustrynolongerhasthebenefitofdemographicdividend,accordingtoLiYanhong,CEOofBaidu,,thegrowthofactivedigitaldevicesin2017wasmuchslowercomparedtothepastdecade:Only61millionnewdeviceswereaddedintheyear,accordingtoQuestMobile,,internet-basedco,thisisprovingtobeanopportunityforMobisummer.

  RockhousesatBeigangvillageinPingtan,Fujianprovince,havebecomeatouristattractionandattractedmanypeoplefromTaiwanfortourismdevelopment.[Photo/VCG]LinChi-yuanunderstandsmorethanmostthat"rockingout"ofPingtan-alsoknownasHaitan-offFujianprovinceproduceuniquelydifferentsoundswhenstruckwithhammers."SomycolleaguesandIbegancollectingrocksofvariousshapesandsizesfromthemountainsofPingtan,"Linsaidatthe10thStraitsForumintheportcityofXiamen,,whichisalsoafreetradezoneabout126kilometersfromTaiwan.VehiclesrunalongtheGuangzhouAvenueinGuangzhou,SouthChinasGuangdongprovinceonApril16,2018.[Photo/VCG]ReportunveilsplantotightengriponemissionsandreducepollutionChinaintendstoimplementitsstrictestvehicleemissionsregulationyettofurtherreduceairpollution,nddieselenginesandincreasetheuseofrailtransportationinfreightservicestocutbackairpollution,,,sair,twomajorpolluters,sairpollution,,Chinahadbeenthelargestvehicleproducerandbuyerintheworldforthenineconsecutiveyears,with310millionautomotivevehiclesonitsroadsattheendoflastyear,,,,headofthePolicyResearchDepartmentoftheministrysVehicleEmissionControlCenter,saidChinahaspha,useandeliminationofautomotivevehiclestoreduceairpollution,,portsinTianjinandShandongprovincebannedtheuseofobileemitters,acategorythatincludesvehicles,,ontrolsmog-extendingthebanonsuchvehicleswithinBeijingsSixthRingRoad-saidMayorChenJiningattheopeningofthefirstsessionofthe15thBeijingPeople,headofairqualitymanagementattheministry,said,"TargetingmotorvehicleexhaustemissionsisaprecisetreatmentforBeijingssmoggyweather,becausestudieshavefoundtheyarethetopsourceofthecitysmajorairpollutants."ThefactorscausingBeijingsairpollutionhavechangeddramatically,withcoal-burningnowaccountingforlessthan10percentofthecitysenergy,andover80percentofBeijingsindustriesnowintheservicesector,Liusaidatanewsconference.

  

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先秦儒道如何解说人与宇宙关系?庄子用蜗牛角这样作喻

Phototakenin1958shows5-year-oldXiJinping(L),hisyoungerbrotherandtheirfatherXiZhongxun.[Photo/]FatherinculcatedfrugalhabitsXiZhongxun,fatherofXiJinping,servedaschairmanoftheShaanxi-GansuBorderRegion,aCPCrevolutionarybaseofthe1930s,andwascalledbyChairmanMaoZedonga"leaderofthepeople."XiZhongxunlaterledGuangdonginitsimplementationofreformandopening-uppoliciesandintheconstructionofspecialeconomiczonesintheprovince."Dadleadsafrugallife,n,"Xisaidinalettertohisfatherin2001,whenhewasthegovernorofFujianprovinceandwasunabletoattendhisfathers88thbirthdaycelebrationduetoworkcommitments.


来源:广州日报

在中国古代,尤其是先秦时代,人与宇宙的对比是怎样的呢?关系又是如何的呢?关于这一点,儒家的说法并不多,在儒家的眼中,宇宙更多的是人类情怀的一个载体,而在道家的眼里,宇宙多少还是一个物质的存在。

《庄子》 王重兴作品

对于人与宇宙的关系,在现代科学语境里,其画面是很清晰的。在浩瀚无边的宇宙面前,人类实在太渺小了,据说直径长达几百亿乃至几千亿光年,哪怕飞船达到光速,也无法穷尽宇宙的边缘。想一想这个都觉得累,连对比的勇气都没有了。

而在中国古代,尤其是先秦时代,人与宇宙的对比是怎样的呢?关系又是如何的呢?关于这一点,儒家的说法并不多,在儒家的眼中,宇宙更多的是人类情怀的一个载体,而在道家的眼里,宇宙多少还是一个物质的存在。我们借助张岱年的《中国哲学大纲》,看看老子和庄子的观点。

庄子:一个蜗牛角可以容下一个国家

在庄子的眼中,世界有好几重对比,首先是陆地和大海的对比。没有航海经验的他,一直认为陆地在大海的环绕当中,和大海相比,陆地很渺小,因此有古井边的海龟跟井底之蛙说大海的故事。具体而言,庄子说:咱们中原地区,和大海相比,就好像一粒米在仓库里的地位,“计中国之在海内,不似梯米之在大仓乎?”其实,在地球上,陆地占比三成,海洋占比七成,没庄子说得这么夸张,但是庄子认为海洋比陆地大的观点,倒是有道理的。这个观点直接影响到后来的苏轼,苏轼在海南流放,他安慰自己说:海南是岛,被大海环绕,而大宋所在,也是个大岛,也被大海环绕。与现代地理观念惊人地吻合。

接下来是人在宇宙中的地位。庄子没有航空经验,也没有观测天体的经验,然而他直觉到:人在宇宙当中,是极其渺小的,对比强烈到什么地步呢?“吾在天地之间,犹小石小木之在大山也”。我们人类在天地之间,就好像小小的石头,小小的树木跟一座大山相比,或者跟泰山相比。

暂停一下,庄周老师似乎说得有点保守,草木与大山的对比,根本没有人与宇宙的对比那么悬殊,光太阳一颗恒星的大小就是地球的几百万倍,更不用说银河系,总星系。然而,在天文探测毫无科学手段的当时,庄周老师能有这个联想,已经达到人类想象的顶层了,还是得鼓励一下。后来,庄周老师又来一比喻,说人在天地,就好像一根毛在马身上,“不似毫末之在马体乎?”这个想象力又稍微扩充了一点,更接近科学的对比。

而庄周的宇宙观真正让人惊叹的地方就在于他的无穷小概念,或者说无穷小当中孕育着无穷大的概念。为了说服诸侯不要有对领土的非分之想,庄子设置了这么一个动漫场面:在蜗牛的左角,有一个国家叫做触氏,在蜗牛的右角,有一个国家叫做蛮氏。这两国为了争夺领土发生战争,战争激烈到什么程度?“伏尸数万,逐北旬有五日而后返”。庄子设置的这个画面,其对比极其强烈。

蜗牛角,在古人眼中是极小的东西,然而却生存着两个国家,而且还发生了大规模的战争。那种尸横遍野,遍地狼烟的场面居然就发生在小小的连一颗尘埃都容不下的蜗牛角上。空间的浩大还通过时间表现出来,一国追逐另外一国,居然追击了十五个昼夜。不过毫末之大的蜗牛角,居然可以让一支军队跑上十五天!

蜗牛角之争的这个画面,显示了庄子不受局限的想象力,其实也给中国的哲学设置了一个概念:无穷大可以寄托在无穷小当中,无穷小可以容纳无穷大。把这个比例延伸到太阳系,那么,地球和整个星系比起来,如同蜗牛角,地球上的万物,如此众多繁复,也只不过寄居在蜗牛角上。

庄子的这种概念,其实还是被继承了下来。例如著名的南柯一梦,就显示了庄子无穷小容纳无穷大的概念。故事的主人公淳于棼,在梦境中来到槐安国,当上了驸马和高官,这个国度有辽阔的疆土,壮丽的山河,数不清的百姓,结果呢?梦想之后,发现只不过是槐树下的一个蚂蚁窝。这其实是庄子蜗角之争的蚂蚁版。

再发展到《聊斋志异》里的“莲花公主”,则拥有几十座城池几百万人口的神秘王国,居然只是一个蜜蜂窝而已。这其实是庄子蜗牛角之争的蜜蜂版。

在庄子的影响下,古人认为人在天地,就如同蚂蚁窝在槐树,蜜蜂窝在菜园。虽然比例还不精确,但道理是对的。总之,在浩瀚的宇宙当中,人类极其渺小。

这个对比的基础上,庄子对人类的地位是比较悲观的。他认为,人类就是被宇宙支配的,主宰不了自己,“吾身非吾有也”,我的身体不属于我自己,而是属于宇宙,属于自然,是宇宙把我造出来的,“是天地之委形也”。

这个观点发展到苏轼,就成了《临江仙》里的一句:“长恨此身非我有”,多么痛的领悟!

老子:人既是卑微的刍狗 同时又是宇宙四大之一

老子眼中的人类在宇宙当中,有极其渺小的一面,他很有名的一句就是“天地不仁,以万物为刍狗”,在天地当中,人类是被操控的,就好像刍狗这种器具,用完了就扔。这番话听起来蛮无情的,然而,老子并不是那么无情,同时又讲到,“故道大,天大,地大,人亦大,域中有四大,而人居其一焉。”

这看起来有点矛盾,一方面说人类渺小得可以被宇宙随便拿捏,卑微到极点,但老子又来一个一百八十度的大转弯,说宇宙当中,人是四大之一。到底信哪一句呢?个人认为,老子所指不同,所谓人如刍狗,可能是指人在宇宙中的实际地位而言,和太阳系比起来,和银河系比起来,渺小得连刍狗都不如。另外,又从态度而言,主观能动性而言,人在所生活的地球上,确实是伟大的,能仿效天地,师法宇宙,取得最佳的生存环境,从这一点而言,人类又十分伟大,“人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然”。和宇宙天地简直成了互相学习的同学和朋友。

儒家:宇宙是人类的道德载体

儒家的宇宙与人的关系,与道家的画面,尤其是庄子的画面,是截然不同的。庄子眼中的人类与宇宙,更多的是个体和空间的关系,是一粒米和一个仓库的关系,都是极小物质和极大物质的对比。

而在儒家的眼中,宇宙到底有多大,人类到底在宇宙中占比多少,并不是很重要,他们也没兴趣研究,他们不会讲扶摇而上九万里,不会讲一粒米与太仓的对比,他们所关注到的空间,更多的是天下,是国家,是我们实实在在的生活空间。

儒家所提到的宇宙,更多的是人类的精神载体,不具备天文学的意义。例如儒家经典《礼运》这样讲述人类在宇宙中的地位,“人者,天地之心也”。这个地位真是高得不要不要的,居然代表宇宙的心,是宇宙的代言人,为什么人能成为宇宙天地之心呢?

因为天地本来就没有主观上的心,宇宙天体,无论是行星还是恒星,无论是星云还是黑洞,都是没有知觉的,而人类有知觉,有意识,能主动认识世界,这个世界,这个宇宙,再怎么巨大,在我们生活的这个地球上,也得靠人类来描述。宇宙一方面是客观的,另一方面又在人类的感官中和描述中存在。

故而在《礼运》里又说“人者,其天地之德”。天地无所谓道德,那么人类就是天地的道德,是天地道德的代言人。从这个层面而言,天地的道德,宇宙的品质属性,都是人类描绘出来的。

枯燥的理论不再重复,我们还是来讲讲董仲舒教授,同学们,凡是提到儒家的宇宙观,咱们的董仲舒老师肯定是不能缺席的,他对人和宇宙的关系,有着强烈的参与感,总喜欢长篇大论说上几句。

在对于人与宇宙的关系上,董仲舒则是庄子的另一个极端,庄子认为人在宇宙面前无可奈何,而董仲舒认为人的能耐可大了,《春秋繁露》认为,人“超然万物之上”,凌驾在自然界之上,万物要成长,人是有决定权的,连天地都受人类影响,“人下长万物,上参天地”,说得有点夸张了,从现代天文学地理学而言,人确实可以影响地球以及大气层的,但对于遥远的天体而言,目前则无能为力。

当然,儒家这种强调人的主观能动性,积极主动去改造自然的信心,还是值得肯定的。

[责任编辑:李志明 PN032]

责任编辑:李志明 PN032

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